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Workforce, Welfare, and Social Services: Achive

Workforce, Welfare, and Social Services Archive

The Aging Government Workforce

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The federal, state, and local government workforces tend to be older than the private sector workforce, and the proportion of workers age 45 and over has been increasing faster in the government workforce than the private sector.
Craig W. Abbey and Donald J. Boyd, July 2002

California, Florida and Texas Add 42% of All New Government Jobs in 1998-99

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The number of government jobs in the United States increased by 47,000 in the second quarter of 1999, rising to 20,091,000. The increase was less than half the 100,000 increase in the previous quarter, the drop-off resulting from an unusually large decline in federal employment and fewer hires in state and local government.
Samuel M. Ehrenhalt, August 1999

Collaborating for Action in a Fragmented Policy Environment: Nonprofit Organizations, Devolution, and the Welfare-to-Work Challenge

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In this paper, we seek to examine this shadowland of policy implementation as it pertains to welfare reform. Our intent is to demonstrate what former U.S. Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare referred to as the vending machine model of social policy change — insert a coin, which delivers a law that is expected to solve the problem — is no longer effective in today’s more complicated policy landscape.
Michael J. Rich with Jolly Emrey and Laurel Parker West, presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta, GA, 1999

Do Tax Increases in New York City Cause a Loss of Jobs? A Review of Evidence

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The proposition that raising the income tax reduces employment is probably as old as the income tax itself. Two recent studies by researchers at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) and by researchers commissioned by the Manhattan Institute set out to investigate whether this proposition holds true in New York City, and both discover it does. The Fiscal Policy Institute reviews both studies.
Moshe Adler, Oliver Cook, and James Parrott, The Fiscal Policy Institute, December 2001

Federal Government Cuts Third of a Million Jobs in Sharpest Decline in Half Century, More Than Reversing Increase of the 80s

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In a period notable for rapid job growth and rising participation in the American labor force, federal government employment in the 1990s has sustained the sharpest decline in a half century. The number of federal jobs is down in most states, in sharp contrast to the substantial expansion in the private sector and a sizable increase in state and local government.
Samuel M. Ehrenhalt, October 1998

Federalism and the Challenges of Improving Information Systems for Human Services

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The U.S. General Accounting Office and the Rockefeller Institute of Government jointly established “The Working Seminar on Social Program Information Systems.” In a real sense, the Working Seminar is an experiment in federalism. The aim was to set up a mechanism that could “learn and lead” in responding to the technological challenge of “the new welfare.” This paper draws on the proceedings of the Working Seminar to do three things: (1) present the information technology challenge of “the new welfare”; (2) discuss information systems of “the old welfare”; and (3) offer suggestions for discussion of a new approach to stimulate and assist in the modernization of information systems for the management of human services.
Richard P. Nathan and Mark Ragan, June 2001

Government Job Increase Largest in Five Years, Mostly in South and West

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The number of government jobs in the United States increased by 121,000 for the three months ending October 1998 compared to the prior three months, rising to 19.943 million. The previous quarter’s increase was 85,000. Both increases were the highest in five years. Indeed, the most recent rise was exceeded in the 1990s only at the outset of the decade when several hundred thousand temporary federal workers were added to take the decennial census.
Samuel M. Ehrenhalt, February 1999

Government Job Rise in 1998 Largest in 8 Years: Women a Majority of Government Workers

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The number of government jobs in the United States increased by 94,000 in the fourth quarter of 1998, rising to 19,986,000. The increase was slightly higher than the 90,000 posted in the second and third quarters, resulting from an unusually large increase in federal employment, while state and local government hiring slowed.
Samuel M Ehrenhalt, April 1999.

Government Jobs and Black Neighborhoods in New York City

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Place, like race, is as central to public policy discussions regarding government jobs as it is for discussions of private sector employment. The author examines this notion in a study of New York City. Government employment in New York City has transitioned a considerable number of blacks, individually and collectively, from poverty to prosperity. The political environment of New York City, however, is increasingly characterized by an urban conservatism oriented towards a smaller government workforce. While there is growing concern for the impact of public sector job loss on blacks as individuals, the author contends that the broader implications of government downsizing on black neighborhoods, particularly middle-income black neighborhoods, need to be considered.
Michael Leo Owens, Date Unknown

Government Jobs Pass the 20-Million Mark, After Adding 2-1/2 Million Jobs in the 90s: Older Workers Hold Close to Half the Jobs, New Study Finds In Private Sector Key Group Is Under 35

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The number of government jobs in the United States passed the 20 million mark for the first time in the first quarter of 1999, as the number on government payrolls rose by 102,000. This was the largest increase since early in 1990 when the federal government put on several hundred thousand temporary workers to conduct the decennial census.
Samuel M Ehrenhalt, June 1999

How States and Counties Have Responded to the Family Policy Goals of Welfare Reform

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This report describes how 18 states and 26 counties within those states responded to the family policy provisions of the 1996 welfare law. The report also offers explanations for why state and local efforts to move clients from welfare to work were greater than efforts to promote marriage and prevent nonmarital births; why abstinence-based efforts to achieve lower rates of teen pregnancy overshadowed state and local efforts to achieve the other family policy goals of PRWORA; and why states and localities responded in limited and diverse ways to the family formation goals of the 1996 welfare reform law.
Deborah Orth and Malcolm Goggin, December 2003

Information Federalism: History of Welfare Information Systems

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Between 1984 and 1992, state and federal government agencies spent more than $6 billion to develop human service information technology systems. This Working Paper is a history of a portion of that development, focusing on state systems to support Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and Job Opportunity and Basic Skills (JOBS) programs. The subjects examined here include service integration across federal, state, and local governments and nonprofit organizations; intergovernmental authority and responsibilities for information system design, development, and implementation; and performance management through the measurement of client outcomes.
Terrence Maxwell, September 1999

Integrating Human Services: Policymakers' Forum with Gary Weeks at the Rockefeller Institute of Government

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This paper is focused on the challenge of integrating human services in a better way than we have historically. Service integration is so patently logical that we must find ways to do it. It makes so much sense, why would anybody need convincing of this? The best place to start is to say what I believe we are talking about as service integration. All states have systems for mental health, public health, substance abuse, child welfare, and adult welfare that have existed for many years — all independently — in their silos. Our ability to treat clients across these silos is prevented by the fact that they act independently.
Gary Weeks, March 2001.

Newest New Federalism for Welfare: Where Are We Now and Where Are We Headed?

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This report deals with the federal-state relationship under welfare and also with what we find to be a surprising form of “second-order devolution” whereby states are assigning more responsibilities to local governments. In a related area, the paper examines where increased responsibilities in the welfare field have been devolved to nongovernmental providers of social services, mostly nonprofit groups, but also for-profit contractors. In this setting, in which the buck is being passed downward, important questions are raised about the role of the federal government to oversee the implementation of the 1996 welfare reform law. The final section of the paper highlights what we view as an immense new oversight challenge for the federal government in the field of social policy.
Richard P. Nathan, October 1997

The “Nonprofitization Movement” as a Form of Devolution

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This paper examines the rising role of nonprofit organizations in two main areas of domestic public affairs — human services and community development. Our focus is on what we call “Nonprofitization,” a form of devolution where nonprofit organizations serve as quasi-governmental providers of “public” services.
Richard P. Nathan with the assistance of Elizabeth I. Davis, Mark J. McGrath, and William C. O'Heaney, in Capacity for Change? The Nonprofit World in the Age of Devolution, University of Minnesota and Indiana University Center on Philanthropy, 1996.

The Policy Environment for Faith-Based Social Services in the United States: What has Changed Since 2002? Results of a 50-State Study

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An updated to the 2003 report, which looks at how the President's Faith-Based and Community Initiative has influenced state actions.
Mark Ragan and David J. Wright, 2005

A Shifting Landscape: Contracting for Welfare Services in New Jersey

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Welfare reform is not only changing how families receive public assistance, it is also changing how and by whom public authority is exercised. In this Rockefeller Report, Richard Roper explains how welfare reform in New Jersey has served as an occasion for attempts to restructure the relations between public agencies and private service providers, and that these attempts raise important questions about who will and ought to play a part in the state’s welfare programs.
Richard Roper, December 23, 1998.

Implementing JOBS: The Initial Design and Structure of Local Programs

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This report presents the findings of the Rockefeller Institute study on the implementation of the Jobs Opportunities and Basic Skills Training Program (JOBS) at the local level. It focuses on the education, training, and employment services provided to JOBS participants in the local sites.
Jan L. Hagen and Irene Lurie, July 1993.

Implementing JOBS: Initial State Choices

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The Family Support Act of 1988 introduced new legislation for welfare employment programs through the provisions of the Jobs Opportunities and Basic Skills Training Program (JOBS). The Rockefeller Institute conducted a 10-state implementation study over three years to assess the state and local responses to this federal law. This is the first of a series of reports presenting the findings of the study. The report focuses on the initial phase of implementing JOBS at the state level – states’ choices in designing, managing, and funding the JOBS program.
Jan L. Hagen and Irene Lurie, March 1992.